Nitric Oxide (NO)
During the 1980s, NO was identified as a critical regulatory molecule in the human body, in 1992 was named the "Molecule of the Year" by Science, and in 1998 the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine was awarded for this discovery. NO has diverse roles both in normal and pathological processes including the regulation of blood pressure, neurotransmission, and macrophage defense systems.
Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS)
NO is synthesized by three isoforms of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) found in endothelial cells (eNOS), neuronal cells (nNOS) and macrophages (iNOS), and this family of enzymes serves different functions.
Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is characterised by the neurodegeneration of the substantia nigral dopaminergic (DA) cells leading to the classic movement disorders originally described. Disease progression and the available treatments all produce their own issues. Classic rigidity and tremor will be supplemented by dyskinesias, tics and wild oscillations in uncontrolled movements or freezing. In addition, dementia, depression and psychotic symptoms frequently develop over time. There are no disease modifying therapies to slow down neurodegeneration and many of the symptoms are potentially exacerbated by drug therapy.
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